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In turn, Cook brought back with him a tattooed Raiatean man, Omai , whom he presented to King George and the English Court.
On subsequent voyages other crew members, from officers, such as American John Ledyard, to ordinary seamen, were tattooed. The first documented professional tattooist in Britain was Sutherland Macdonald , who operated out of a salon in London beginning in A marked class division on the acceptability of the practice continued for some time in Britain.
As most tattoos in the United States were done by Polynesian and Japanese amateurs, tattoo artists were in great demand in port cities all over the world, especially by European and American sailors.
The first recorded professional tattoo artist in the US was a German immigrant, Martin Hildebrandt. He opened a shop in New York City in and quickly became popular during the American Civil War among soldiers and sailors of both Union and Confederate militaries.
Hildebrandt began traveling from camp to camp to tattoo soldiers, increasing his popularity and also giving birth to the tradition of getting tattoos while being an American serviceman.
Soon after the Civil War, tattoos became fashionable among upper-class young adults. This trend lasted until the beginning of World War I.
The invention of the electric tattoo machine caused popularity of tattoos among the wealthy to drop off. The machine made the tattooing procedure both much easier and cheaper, thus, eliminating the status symbol tattoos previously held, as they were now affordable for all socioeconomic classes.
The status symbol of a tattoo shifted from a representation of wealth to a mark typically seen on rebels and criminals. Despite this change, tattoos remained popular among military servicemen, a tradition that continues today.
In , there were only 40 tattoo artists in the country; in , there were more than 5, self-proclaimed tattoo artists, [ citation needed ] appearing in response to booming popularity in the skin mural trade.
In June , the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology published the results of a telephone survey of They concluded that Generation X and Millennials express themselves through their appearance, and tattoos are a popular form of self-expression.
Men are slightly more likely to have a tattoo than women. Richmond, Virginia has been cited as one of the most tattooed cities in the United States.
Since the s, tattoos have become a mainstream part of Western fashion, common between both genders, among all economic classes  and to age groups from the later teen years to middle age.
For many young Americans, the tattoo has taken on a decidedly different meaning than for previous generations. The tattoo has undergone "dramatic redefinition" and has shifted from a form of deviance to an acceptable form of expression.
As of 1 November , Oklahoma became the last state to legalize tattooing, having banned it since Protection papers were used by American sailors to prevent themselves from being taken off American ships and impressed into the Royal Navy.
These were simple documents that described the sailor as being an American sailor. Many of the protection certificates were so general, and it was so easy to abuse the system, that many impressment officers of the Royal Navy paid no attention to them.
In applying for a duplicate Seaman's Protection Certificate in , James Francis stated that he 'had a protection granted him by the Collector of this Port on or about 12 March which was torn up and destroyed by a British Captain when at sea.
As a result, many of the later certificates carried information about tattoos and scars, as well as other specific information.
This also perhaps led to an increase and proliferation of tattoos among American seamen. Frequently their 'protection papers' made reference to tattoos, clear evidence that individual was a seafaring man; rarely did members of the general public adorn themselves with tattoos.
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, tattoos were as much about self-expression as they were about having a unique way to identify a sailor's body should he be lost at sea or impressed by the British navy.
The best source for early American tattoos is the protection papers issued following a congressional act to safeguard American seamen from impressment.
These proto- passports catalogued tattoos alongside birthmarks , scars , race, and height. Using simple techniques and tools, tattoo artists in the early republic typically worked on board ships using anything available as pigments , even gunpowder and urine.
Men marked their arms and hands with initials of themselves and loved ones, significant dates, symbols of the seafaring life, liberty poles, crucifixes, and other symbols.
Because these protection papers were used to define freemen and citizenship, many black sailors and other men also used them to show that they were freemen if they were stopped by officials or slave catchers.
They also called them "free papers" because they certified their non-slave status. Many of the freed blacks used descriptions of tattoos for identification purposes on their freedom papers.
Branding was used by European authorities for marking criminals throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In nineteenth century Australia tattoos were generally the result of personal rather than official decisions but British authorities started to record tattoos along with scars and other bodily markings to describe and manage convicts assigned for transportation.
For example, James Ross in the Hobart Almanac of describes how the convicts on board ship commonly spent time tattooing themselves with gunpowder.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, there were tattoo studios in Australia but they do not appear to have been numerous. For example, the Sydney tattoo studio of Fred Harris was touted as being the only tattoo studio in Sydney between and Another popular trend was for women to have their legs tattooed so the designs could be seen through their stockings.
By Harris was one of Sydney's best-known tattoo artists and was inking around tattoos a year in his shop. Sailors provided most of the canvases for his work but among the more popular tattoos in were Australian flags and kangaroos for sailors of the visiting American Fleet.
In modern day Australia a popular tattoo design is the Southern Cross motif, or variations of it. Tattooing involves the placement of pigment into the skin's dermis, the layer of dermal tissue underlying the epidermis.
After initial injection, pigment is dispersed throughout a homogenized damaged layer down through the epidermis and upper dermis, in both of which the presence of foreign material activates the immune system 's phagocytes to engulf the pigment particles.
As healing proceeds, the damaged epidermis flakes away eliminating surface pigment while deeper in the skin granulation tissue forms, which is later converted to connective tissue by collagen growth.
Its presence there is stable, but in the long term decades the pigment tends to migrate deeper into the dermis, accounting for the degraded detail of old tattoos.
In modern tattooing, an artist may use a thermal stencil paper or Hectograph to first place the design print on the skin before working with the machine and needle on skin.
This process has enabled artists to create very detailed artworks on the skin. Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents; some cultures continue this practice, which may be an adjunct to scarification.
Some cultures create tattooed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones made into needles with clay formed disks or, in modern times, actual needles.
The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electric tattoo machine , which inserts ink into the skin via a single needle or a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit.
The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to times a second. The needles are single-use needles that come packaged individually.
Tattooing is regulated in many countries because of the associated health risks to client and practitioner, specifically local infections and virus transmission.
Disposable plastic aprons and eye protection can be worn depending on the risk of blood or other secretions splashing into the eyes or clothing of the tattooist.
Hand hygiene, assessment of risks and appropriate disposal of all sharp objects and materials contaminated with blood are crucial areas.
The tattoo artist must wash his or her hands and must also wash the area that will be tattooed. Gloves must be worn at all times and the wound must be wiped frequently with a wet disposable towel of some kind.
All equipment must be sterilized in a certified autoclave before and after every use. It is good practice to provide clients with a printed consent form that outlines risks and complications as well as instructions for after care.
Among Austronesian societies, tattoos had various function. Among men, they were strongly linked to the widespread practice of head-hunting raids.
In head-hunting societies, like the Ifugao and Dayak people , tattoos were records of how many heads the warriors had taken in battle, and was part of the initiation rites into adulthood.
The number, design, and location of tattoos, therefore, were indicative of a warrior's status and prowess. They were also regarded as magical wards against various dangers like evil spirits and illnesses.
The Government of Meiji Japan had outlawed tattoos in the 19th century, a prohibition that stood for 70 years before being repealed in Existing tattoos are required to be covered with proper clothing.
The regulations were added to Osaka's ethical codes, and employees with tattoos were encouraged to have them removed. This was done because of the strong connection of tattoos with the yakuza , or Japanese organized crime, after an Osaka official in February threatened a schoolchild by showing his tattoo.
Tattoos had negative connotations in historical China , where criminals often had been marked by tattooing. The Romans tattooed criminals and slaves, and in the 19th century released U.
Prisoners in Nazi concentration camps were tattooed with an identification number. Today, many prison inmates still tattoo themselves as an indication of time spent in prison.
Native Americans also used tattoos to represent their tribe [ citation needed ]. Catholic Croats of Bosnia used religious Christian tattooing , especially of children and women, for protection against conversion to Islam during the Ottoman rule in the Balkans.
Tattoos are strongly empirically associated with deviance , personality disorders and criminality. Current cultural understandings of tattoos in Europe and North America have been greatly influenced by long-standing stereotypes based on deviant social groups in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Particularly in North America, tattoos have been associated with stereotypes, folklore and racism. At the same time, members of the U.
In Japan, tattoos are associated with yakuza criminal groups, but there are non-yakuza groups such as Fukushi Masaichi's tattoo association that sought to preserve the skins of dead Japanese who have extensive tattoos.
Tattooing is also common in the British Armed Forces. Depending on vocation, tattoos are accepted in a number of professions in America.
Companies across many fields are increasingly focused on diversity and inclusion. In Britain, there is evidence of women with tattoos, concealed by their clothing, throughout the 20th century, and records of women tattooists such as Jessie Knight from the s.
In Covered in Ink by Beverly Yuen Thompson, she interviews heavily tattooed women in Washington, Miami, Orlando, Houston, Long Beach, and Seattle from to using participant observation and in-depth interviews of 70 women.
Younger generations are typically more unbothered by heavily tattooed women, while older generation including the participants parents are more likely to look down on them, some even go to the extreme of disowning their children for getting tattoos.
Family members who weren't accepting of tattoos often wanted to scrub the images off, pour holy water on them or have them surgically removed.
Families who were emotionally accepting of their family members were able to maintain close bonds after tattooing.
Former sailor Rowland Hussey Macy , who formed Macy's department stores, used a red star tattoo that he had on his hand for the store's logo.
Tattoos have also been used in marketing and advertising with companies paying people to have logos of brands like HBO , Red Bull , ASOS.
Nine people took the business up on the offer. Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattooing carries health risks including infection and allergic reactions.
Tattooing can be uncomfortable to excruciating depending on the area and can result in the person fainting. Modern tattooists reduce risks by following universal precautions working with single-use items and sterilizing their equipment after each use.
Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have blood-borne pathogen training such as that provided through the Red Cross and OSHA.
As of in the United States there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted from tattoos. In amateur tattooing, such as that practiced in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection.
Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis , herpes simplex virus , HIV , staph , tetanus , and tuberculosis.
Tattoo inks have been described as "remarkably nonreactive histologically". This is sometimes due to the presence of nickel in an ink pigment, which triggers a common metal allergy.
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